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Applying For Rats From Me

Like any good breeder, I want to make sure my rats go to people who love rats, are willing to learn everything they can to keep them healthy and happy, and can provide their housing, food, and veterinary needs for the whole of their relatively short lives.

There are so many rats that end up purchased by well-meaning people only to be passed on when the landlord discovers with horror that there are pet rats in the place (heaven forfend!) or a child loses interest, or the owner gets bored. I’ve had many “rescue rats” due to such circumstances and I am determined that the rats I breed do not end up being rehomed.

Normally I say (in fact, I insist) that if you adopt rats from me you agree that, should you be unable to look after them in the future, you will return them to me. Since Covid19, however, I’m more careful about taking back rats I’ve homed out. I’ll still have them, of course!

Generally, don’t get rats unless you are 100% sure you can keep them. This means your landlord or housemates aren’t against the idea or allergic, that you can afford them, that you agree to look after them for their entire lives. If for some reason you cannot, ring and we’ll see what can be arranged, however. I usually have a lot of people who want rats and might be able to find a suitable home.

If you don’t have enough money for veterinary bills, I suggest you put a minimum of £100 away for every rat you plan to keep and, only then, adopt rats. Anyone’s rats — not just mine. My experience with rats is that they will get at least one upper respiratory infection, costing close to 50 pounds for the vet visit and medication,  and one “put to sleep” visit, costing about the same later in their lives. Additionally, you may find you need to spay or have a tumour removed from your rat. Costs vary but my vet will charge about £85 for a spay. Not every rat will need tumour removal or spaying, but it’s good to know you have the funds available if this should turn out to be the case.

Your rats’ quality of life is very important. They are such smart, active, curious creatures that they really need to come out daily for about an hour to “free-range” either in a secure room or a large enclosure (I can help you with ideas on this). I have a play pen as well as time out on my sofa while I watch movies. They climb on me, go through tunnels, investigate the book shelf, and generally have a nice time. Because I have both males and females, I have to make sure that each group comes out. It’s a commitment!

Of course, the rats won’t die if they don’t come out of their cage daily…so if you do miss a day here or there, don’t worry. I’m just trying to give you an idea of what you’re getting yourself into by getting rats!

So…what happens when you go away for holiday? You can’t just leave them with nobody to attend to them. You’ll need to find a family member or pet service that will check on them daily.  Of course, if it is only overnight, you can add an extra water bottle and a big bowl of food and you’ll probably be fine, but don’t turn off the heat! Rats can adjust to colder temperatures but not all at once! I keep mine somewhere between 16-21…the summers can be hard as they don’t like it too hot. It’s difficult to keep temperatures moderate during a very hot summer or cold winter and this is why I insist that any baby rats of mine be kept in your house and not in a shed or garage. I can help you with ideas for keeping your rats warm enough, for cooling them down, for making sure they thrive, but only if they are in a house or flat, not outdoors.

Rats need company. I’ve found very few exceptions to the rule that all rats must be kept in a minimum of pairs. This is why I prefer to home rats in trios, not in pairs. It is so easy to lose a rat at, say, 20 months old and have their sister or brother go on to live six additional months or more. If you have a very elderly rat that really is on its last legs you may choose to keep him or her alone for a couple of weeks prior to saying goodbye to that rat. In fact, that may be the kindest thing if the rat is very infirm. However, for the most part, you really need to keep rats with other rats. One great reason to join the the National Fancy Rat Society is so that you can post on their forum “WANTED” section if you find yourself in this position (the forum is also a great place to get health and breeding information).

People will be more than willing to help you either by supplying you with a couple of baby rats or even finding a rat of approximately the same age with which you can pair your singleton rat. That is, if they can.

Do you have the room for a rat cage? It seems a silly question but these cages are BIG. In fact, if you want to make your life a lot easier, get a couple of cages. One would be smallish, the sort of thing you can keep three baby rats in for a week or so and then use as a “hospital” or travel cage in the future. I have a Savic Ruffy 2 cage that I’d never keep rats in permanently because it is way too small even for 2 rats. However, I find it fits nicely into my car when I take my rats away with me overnight (which, yes, I do!) or when I take a few to shows. It has been an old rats’ cage for my extremely elderly rats who can no longer climb and a honeymoon suite for a pair of rats I hope to mate. I love the cage, though it is not perfect (the door is on the top so you have to swoop in eagle-style to pick up a rat!). At home, my rats are in a Savic Suite Royale, a giant cage with two levels. However, a trio of rats all be quite happy in something like a Furplast Freddy 2 or a Freddy 2 Max. You can use a Mamble 100 if you can find it, half the price and much bigger than it looks in the photos. Also, very good is the Coco Large found at Little Pet Warehouse. There are a lot of other cages but be careful the bars aren’t too far apart and that the access is good so it’s easy for you to clean!

It isn’t just the size of the cage that matters (though it does) but how it is furnished. You cage should be stuffed with tubes, hammocks, perches, ledges, digging boxes, ropes, cargo nets, and the like.

My point is this: the cage is BIG. You have to have room. And you may need more than one. The furnishings are extensive, you’ll need a ton of them, and yes you need a 14″ or larger wheel (at least, if you want rats from me). I don’t home rats to people unless they provide a 14″ or larger wheel.

Now, for the health-related stuff. First, are you allergic to rats? If you think you might be, please go along to a rat show run by the NFRS or another organisation, walk around and play with the rats (people will be happy to share their rats with you if you explain why you want to hold them) BEFORE collecting a pair of babies and then breaking out in a skin rash! You may be allergic to their bedding, not the rat, which is easily managed by switching bedding.

Next, are you pregnant or are you immunocompromised? Why do I ask? Because many pet rats (or at least some pet rats) may carry hantavirus, which is a virus that is normally not serious but CAN be serious for some people, including those who are immunocompromised. Now, if you have pet rats and later become pregnant, you can ask your doctor about the situation. Your doctor may know little about it, however. Hopefully, it won’t matter too much as you have already been exposed to your rats and so if they carry the virus you already have antibodies. But I wouldn’t go around playing with tons of additional other rats during this time. Also, keep your rats indoors so they don’t come into contact with wild rats that may carry leptospirosis.

If you have children, are they able to cope with a rat bite, should one occur? My rats don’t bite me but if I were try to break up a fight (don’t do that!) I’d have a chance of being bitten and these bites can be serious. This is why I don’t break up rat fights with my hands — ever! Anyway, most rat fights result in no injury to either rat despite the squeaking!

All rat bites carry a chance of rat bite fever. And anyway, they hurt. For a small child a rat bite to the finger could be very deep and do lots of damage. The same is true for hamster bites, of course, but I’m just making the point. I like small does for small children for this reason. Smaller jaws, less testosterone. Having said that, I’m always amazed at how cuddly and gentle male rats are. It’s just that if they do bite, they will make a bigger impression.

Have I scared you off? I hope not! Like many breeders, I am doing everything I can to breed really sweet, easy rats. But they aren’t the cheapest pet (apparently the hamster is our cheapest pet!) and they do need daily attention, a big cage, funds for veterinary care, and a little respect by children and adults alike.

You can find loads of information through the National Fancy Rat Society. I suggest you join it and read their forum. A great source of the latest knowledge.


Video of Orange Julius being cute

This is Blue Apple Orange Julius. I really love this rat and he’s exactly what I breed for (but don’t always get). He’s a 7-month old Russian topaz buck turning velvet. Really nice guy who is sweet to people as well as his cage mates. I will be breeding him but am not sure when. I may breed Eloise to Kiwi Kronk and then the does from that litter to Julius when they reach 6+ months. Kronk isn’t velvet but he also isn’t topaz so the litter would have a wider selection of colours from which I could choose (I prefer to breed from does who are not carrying two copies of Red-eyed dilute). Velvet is a tricky thing to get and keep. I don’t understand it yet.


A New Generation

It’s hard to imagine just how much goes into breeding rats. First, you need your foundation rats, which in my case came from a mix of Kiwi Stud rats and Meraki rats. Both Keera (Kiwi) and Jennifer (Meraki) are fantastic breeders and their rats are well known for being person-oriented as well as lovely to look at!

That’s how I got Elsa, Kiko and Saffy. I thought I was breeding for Russian dove agouti and Russian dove, but it turns out that two of the girls were VELVET! So…suddenly I was looking for a velvet buck for the next generation.

This came by way of Kiwi again, with Keera’s stud buck, Kiwi Cluck (I think his actual name is Kiwi Cluckety-Cluck-Cluck!), a Russian topaz boy. I had two litters with him, one with Kiko and one with Elsa. Twenty seven babies, later, I was clearly breeding for all Russian topaz or Russian blue agouti, with huge differences in size, type, ear-set, you name it. This is typical in an outcross, I am told. You really just don’t know what you’ll get!

The important thing — temperament — all looks good so far. They are outgoing people-oriented rats. Let’s hope they stay as lovely as they are now.

So, now I’ve got a couple of Russian blue agouti doe babies (are they beauty queens…um, probably not!) and a cute Russian topaz dumbo baby. Who can complain?

And from these three I’ll choose a couple perhaps to mate up in May, probably to their half-brother.

Meanwhile, the 3 baby boys have been introduced to the adult bucks…amazingly, they are doing well. I stuck them in a small space for a couple of days and they’ve finally reached a very small rat cage. Here they are together! There’s a lot of them!

I’m looking forward to seeing who (if anyone) turns velvet and to having some lovely babies again in the spring.

To all the homes who have had babies from me, thank you for loving them as I do.


Kiko’s little ones!

Kiwi Kiko, one of my Russian blue agouti does, had a litter the morning of Saturday, October 26th. The buck (not mine but another Kiwi boy!) is Kiwi Cluck, a Russian topaz velvet buk. Kiko is velvet, too, but not nearly as much as Cluck and we’re hoping for some velvet babies from this group.

Lots to tell but I think the photos are the fun bit. Here they are at 8 days old. There are 12 but one of them may be a foster from Tenebrae. We’ll know shortly whether that little foster made it or not.

Little purgers and some a bit on the thinner side
They only come out for a few minutes. Under the fleece is a warm (not hot!) hot water bottle.
NFRS,Rat Shows,rats!,Showing

Kiwi Saffy In Her Show Tank — the Girl is doing some winning!

Saffy keeps coming home with rosettes! She won Reserve Best In Show at a 1-star NFRS show in June, then won third in the Supreme Challenge as well as Best Opposite Age at a recent 2-star show in Meldreth.

The judge remarked on her depth of colour and overall good type. He didn’t mention she’s cheeky and full of fun, though I know this to be the case. 🙂

To be honest, I have no idea why Saffy is as “good” as she is. She’s carrying a single gene of red eyed dilute (RED) which means, in theory, she should be a bit too light to win at shows. I keep waiting for her to moult out to a less rich colour (eventually this will happen as Russian blues tend to morph with age). But right now, she’s looking good! I’ll show her at the Summer Cup in July. That’s a HUGE show and I don’t expect her to win, but she’ll certainly not look out of place.

Saffy is now 14 weeks old, and I won’t be breeding her until she’s 7 months. So sorry to those who are waiting! She’ll be bred to another Russian blue but both she and the buck are carrying RED as well as mink. This means they could produce Russian buff, Russian dove and Russian blue. I definitely won’t be keeping the Russian buff and they will be available for homes. I will be keeping at least one Russian dove and possibly a Russian blue.


Bringing Down the Cost Of Vet Bills



I know they are cute and I know they are fun, but rats are also quite expensive. It’s not the initial cost. Most people don’t worry about paying £15 for a rat. It’s not even the cages, though a cage big enough for a trio of rats will run you anything from £60 on up to the hundreds, depending on how big a cage you want. The problem certainly isn’t the food as even the best quality and most expensive food you can buy (for example the Isa-mix with Egg biscuit) will retail at £3.86/kilogram (at if you are interested).


The problem is the vet bills. I estimate that every rat I own will cost me about £150 in vet bills during the course of their lives. Now, this doesn’t always happen. I have a few 24-month old does that have never seen a vet (yet). On the other hand, both my 20-month girls already needed spaying (about £90 each) and will certainly have at least one visit to the vet during the remainder of their lives, if only for that sad, last time when they are put to sleep.


So, why is it that rats cost so much? There are many diseases a rat can get but the one I’ll talk about here are upper respiratory infections. During one of my saving missions with a very “respy” doe of many years ago my vet sighed and told me that he’d done post mortems on pet rats and the state of their lungs made him wonder how they could ever breathe in the first place.


So, I put this in a blog just to warn prospective pet owners: pet rats are not that cheap! While it is true they will never need thousands of pounds worth of surgery as a dog with a cruciate ligament problem might, they may very well cost you more than you thought they would. As rats only live a couple of years you may keep bringing in new rats and so you always have more “end of life” scenarios in the horizon.


So, what about these upper respiratory infections? Is there any way to manage them less expensively? Yes. Here are a few guidelines for you:


1. Avoid illnesses if possible. Sounds obvious, but it isn’t. If you want to avoid heart disease try to feed a well-balanced diet and weigh out, then scatter the feed, across the cage so that rats have to spend more time foraging for it. This allows them the natural behaviour of foraging, helps keep them from getting bored, and keeps them trim. I like the “Isamix” varieties at If you want to us a block feed, try Science Diet, but do definitely remember to give your rats fresh fruit and vegetables (broccoli and salad are often good choices!). Also, keep your rats out of a draft and at a temperature between 18-25 degrees whenever possible. Do not put them the cage by a window as you may not feel the draft yourself but they can! Also, keep your rats on dust-free and/or kiln-dried substrate. Aubiose, Bedmax, Finacard, just to name a few. This will help reduce the most common respiratory illness of rats: upper respiratory infections. Finally, stay away from your own rats for at least 2 hours after being in close proximity of rats that may be ill (for example, in pet shops, where many rats being sold are not particularly well).

2. Treat early. Treat your rat with obvious signs of a budding respiratory infection before it reaches critical stage. This will be cheaper for you and much better for the rat. If your rat is sneezing more than it should, making a “clicking” noise and showing red discharge around its eyes (this is porphyrin, secreted from the Harderian gland, and is a kind of mucous), it is already stressed out by illness. A trip to the vet for antibiotics is in order. You may not see all these signs, by the way. Some rats don’t get “porphy” with illness. But you will hear noises. And if you hear a kind of wet “gurgly” sound your rat is quite ill. Swift measures may save him his life and you a bundle by avoiding out-of-hours fees for your sick friend.

3. Get on good terms with your vet. My vet knows me and my rats really well. I’ve been charged about half what I’d likely be charged for one of my dogs simply because my vet knows how responsible I am with my rats and that they matter to me. He once removed a mammary tumour for just over £50. Why? Because he knows that many rat owners can’t or won’t pay twice that (or more!) for a rat’s mammary tumour removal and with the surgery rats can and do recover very well. He cares about the rats and he supports owners who go that extra mile. Find a vet like that (I know, they are like gold dust!). You can also bargain with the vet. Literally, ask if they can do the surgery for less money — why not? If the practice allows flexibility, you might get lucky!

4. Learn about rat illnesses before they occur. While it is great to read all about rat toys and cage set ups, it is equally important to read about rat illness. There is a booklet called Common Diseases of the Fancy Rat written by Ann Storey, president of the National Fancy Rat Society in the UK, that you get when you join the club. It is definitely worth having! Order it from And read the websites. Here are a few all from rat expert, Jemma Fettes, whose website is very instructive and what I consider required reading for any rat owner:   Respiratory Illness, Heart Disease , Hind Leg Degeneration, Non-cancerous tumours, Abcesses, Cancerous tumours , Parasites.

Another great source for all health issues regarding rats is

5. Accept that despite everything you do, your rats will eventually get ill! Hey, it’s not your fault. It’s rats! Do you think I’ve never had a sneezing rat or a rat with a zymbals glad tumour? Of course, I have. Sometimes a sneeze is only a sneeze, but sometimes it’s a trip to the vet. As for costs associated with breeding…well, let’s just say my emergency fund for rat veterinary bills gets larger when I expect a litter.


My advice to any animal owner is to keep an emergency fund for veterinary costs. My dogs are insured but for my rats I keep a pot of “rat money” that I only use for vet bills. By treating early and avoiding those emergency out-of-hours fees, plus keeping aside “rat money” you’ll save yourself a lot of stress, too!


Finally, don’t go to crazy lengths to save very old rats. I’ve done it and I haven’t always been successful anyway (though sometimes, yes!). However, your rat is very old and is no longer eating and drinking and getting the quality of life he deserves, it is far kinder to ask the vet to humanely put the rat to sleep. I have a way of making that (slightly) less stressful for the rat. When mine are very ill I keep them in a “hospital cage”, which is only one level (the exact cage is a Savic Ruffy but an “Alaska” or similar would be equally good and cost you less). I provide thick sleeping “cubes” that tend to hold the warmth better than large, thinner hammocks. When it is time to say goodbye, I take the whole cube with the rat inside and put it in a carrier. I then transport to the vet and ask the vet to lower the rat in its cube into the tank when they put it down. That way the rat is in its secure home and less stressed by the experience.


It’s the best I’ve come up with so far, though I’ve had different situations that have meant rats have died while sleeping on my chest or, on occasion, passed peacefully in a huddle with their cagemates.


How To Introduce New Rats

For years I dreaded introducing rats to one another. Or rather, I didn’t mind too much introducing does to each other — they were far more peaceable (usually), but I was scared to death of introducing male rats.

I had good reason. Adult male rats do not take well to strangers. A perfectly peaceable buck will turn into a a puffed up, adrenaline-fed hellraiser the moment he sees an intruder and new rats can inflict serious injury to one another, even death.

Much depends on who you are introducing to whom. Let’s start with the easiest: babies. You can introduce babies from different litters at any time up until ten or twelve weeks without any trouble. Breeders typically mix eight week old rats from one litter with a similar age from another litter without any need for special introductions. The same may be true with 10-14 weeks rats. However at some point introducing will cause some friction.

By the time they are juveniles, you should be a little more respectful of the need for measured introductions. Young rats may best be introduced on neutral ground — a sofa or dry bathtub on which a towel bas been laid will do. Such a space is nobody’s territory and therefore the rats may simply get used to each other without feeling any need to defend. (However, I have to admit I’ve been less inclined to use first stage and go straight to the “carrier method” which I’ll detail below)

The famous “rat lady”, Debbie Ducommun writes that “with time and patience almost any rat will accept a newcomer” with only the occasion rat requiring spaying or neutering in order to become more accepting. The reason for the neutering is to bring the level of hormones down. Apparently, territorial aggression is often transformed with a sudden knock to the gonads. While the world of rats owes a lot to Debbie Ducommun, a renowned expert, I am not as big a fan of her introduction methods which tend to to be gradual, with introductions in neutral territory being followed by introductions in a relatively large cage. Ms. Decommun recommends “cleaning out the larger cage completely and rearrange the furnishings so it appears to be a new cage. Trim the back toenails of the rats to minimize scratching in a scuffle. Put vanilla extract or perfume on all the rats to make them smell the same. Then put the rats in this cage.”

Not that she is wrong, as such. I think with does and rats of a few months old you can follow her methods and have success. And she is right about a great deal, including that the best time to start introductions is when the rats are sleepy (so the middle of the day). I also agree with her that if fighting is taking place over a period of weeks you may have to give up with two rats ever being friends. However, my preferred method of introductions is one called the “Carrier Method”. I didn’t make it up — I’m not sure who did — but it hasn’t failed me with any of the doe-to-doe introductions I’ve tried, nor with introducing adult bucks to baby bucks (10 weeks old). I haven’t tied adult buck to adult buck, except on reintroductions, which is a slightly different situation.

So what do you do with the carrier method? You put the rats to be introduced, whether it is a single individual to a single individual or a group to a group, into the smallest cage or carrier that will fit all of them. When I say “fit”, the rats need to be in as small a space as you can find that allows them to be shoulder to shoulder and still lie down. In the case of 2-3 rats, a small carrier will do. For 5 does, you may need a large carrier. For 10 rats, you’ll need a small hamster cage.

It should look crowded. A little like this:

Once you’ve put them all in, walk around with the carrier.  Rats that are unsure tend not to find, so usually they won’t do much while in “transit”. Keep them moving until they seem more relaxed. If you want to extend this time, put them in a car. The motion of the car is likely to keep them quiet as well.

Later, you can just sit down with the carrier near you. Hear squeaking and fussing? Walk around with the carrier to distract them from this. You may see a rat pinning down another rat, or forcibly grooming another so that the poor victim is squeaking lightly. That is to be expected. But as long as the one being pounced upon submits to the other, they will soon be fine. If a rat is really being aggressive with another, you may need to intervene. Do not do this with your bare hands! Get a water spray or a towel or oven gloves or anything, but do not ever break up a rat fight without protection. It is a sure way to get bitten.

Once it seems they are fine in the carrier you can add a mouse-sized water bottle (I say mouse-sized as it is the only thing that is going to stay in the holes of the carrier, most likely).

Add food scattered on floor. Do not give any treats or anything that too exciting to them that they will fight over.

Some people keep them in a carrier for a few hours or overnight. I’ve had mine in a  carrier for as little as 5 hours to as long as 24 hours. I’ve been known to sleep with a carrier next to my bed.  In fact, I have many carriers in different sizes and I put them into an identical carrier every 12 hours so they are clean. Only once I’ve seen they are bored as hell (approximately 1 day for does, maybe the same for bucks but might be longer) do I move to the next level, a really small hamster cage. From there it might be another day (or two or three) before they get moved to a single story rat cage like a Savic Ruffy. No hammocks. A day later, I try a hammock, then another, then maybe a little house. Once they are in rat piles and look like nothing much is stirring I move to my SRS, but only half of it. I am making it sound like I do this every week. I’ve only done 4, I think. 3 with does, 1 with bucks. You can go much faster if it is a totally nothing event (very compliant does or luck), but some people take a week to get from carrier to normal rat cage with no hammocks.

Rats will play fight and will have occasional grumbles (especially the boys) but it is natural for them to live in groups and they usually get on. If you have a particularly difficult situation, you may need to create alternative groupings or even neuter/spay a rat or rats. However, generally speaking, peace reigns.

Be warned that you may have to “reintroduce” rats on occasion. For example, if you’ve had one out of the group for days or weeks at a time or when the “alpha” rat dies. I recently had a buck out for mating. I shampooed him so that he wouldn’t smell like does but I still had to stick all the boys in an intro cage for a few hours until they were back to normal. It was definitely worth it (less stress for me, if nothing else!) and now they are all happy again…..

…..until I add a few more rats! Which I do on occasion!


Temperament Testing In Rats

Much is made of early temperament testing in rats. Typically, a breeder will perform a number of tests including a “scruff” test, a human approach test (HAT), and a novel object test (NOT) as well as an open door test (ODT).


In the scruff tests, the breeder holds the rat by the scruff of the neck and observes its behaviour. A good score would be given to those rats that go limp and do not struggle. A HAT test is just what it sounds like. A human puts a hand into a cage of rats (usually a tub so they are all on one level) and waits to see which rats approach first. The same would be observed with a novel object. Rats with a “good temperament” will approach the hand or object ahead of the others. One with a very fearful temperament will hang back, unwilling to interact with that hand or object as quickly.


There are a number of shortcomings to such tests. First, most breeders interact with their newly born rat kittens from day one, if only to count them, make sure they have “milk bands”, indicating they are feeding well, and remove any dead kittens if there are any in the nest. They continue to interact with them throughout their very young lives simply because they enjoy their new kittens and also to ensure the kittens have exposure to human scent early so that they are not fearful of people.


Handling varies with breeders. Some handle their baby rats a great deal and owners can pretty much expect tame babies from the time they collect them, though whether this is due to genetics or environments is difficult to determine.  The point is that the babies will run to the door of the cage because either they have learned that the hand at the door is safe and/or because they’ve been taught that by doing so they received food treats. The object test won’t do much good because the breeder has placed novel objects in the cage for weeks since the rats were mobile in order to provide a more “enriched” environment for the babies as they grow. It is possible the scruff test would still work out, though the breeder has to be careful that they are doing it the same on each rat and doing it correctly (this is harder than you think) in order to get a worthwhile result.


Some breeders do not do much handling. This is either because they worry about upsetting the mother rat or because they have so many litters being born that they do not have time. Also, they may feel they’ve already “stabilised” temperament within the line of rats that they breed so that the rats are pretty tame even without handling. For these babies, temperament tests may have a role, though even then we run into difficulties assessing what a “good”temperament is.


I have a few friends who breed rats and we all have different ideas about temperament. Some like their rats to be quite naughty and “ratty”, to be active, curious and into everything. Others prefer “lap rats”, those rats who like to sit passively and be stroked like a lap dog. If you were wanting a curious, intrepid rat you might say that the rat that is first to check out new things, always first out of the cage, always the one that climbs fastest and goes furthest from the others has the “best” temperament. However, if you want a lap rat you’d probably look for one that is a little more dopey and slow. I like dopey slow rats, myself, but I have to admit that the personality of my more active rats makes for a great deal of amusement. And who wouldn’t want a rat that jumps from the cage onto your shoulder, practically begging you to take her out and do something fun?


What we do know about temperament in rats is that you can’t determine it entirely at the age of 4 weeks or 5 weeks or even 8 weeks. Sure, you can get a sense of the rat. A very outgoing rat may be obvious at that time. Same with a very shy one. However, what science we do have on temperament in developing rats tells us that the brain is still developing throughout a rat’s adolescence. See below, from Applied Animal Behaviour Science:



A rat that may appear fearful or squeaky at 4 weeks could develop into a very sweet, biddable rat months later if it was handled often. A more confident rat could possibly become more cheeky than you like by the time it has grown up. Can we determine this early on? I’m not sure, though the best source for information may be the breeders, themselves. Breeders who are very interested in temperament (not all are) and who give thought to the development of their rats from birth to death will glean some patterns in what you might look for in a young rat.


For example, they may have a line of rats that are real “potatoes” or “lap rats” and they’ll have determined how those babies behave in comparison to their more active lines, who would perform really well in agility competitions but rarely sit on a lap. I’m new to breeding, but I can tell you that rats change over time, too. My does that were incredibly active, scrambly mad girls at 6 months have often become very docile, quiet rats a year later. Sure, they still like to climb and explore, but they often sit on my lap, too.


I have three 21-month old does who are very active, never sit on my lap, and are always into mischief. However, they race to get to me, climb onto my shoulders and “groom” my hair, love everyone (rat or human) and never fight. Good temperaments? I think so. They were haphazardly bred by someone who was going to feed them to a snake.


There isn’t any real science behind temperament tests for rats, though you get a lot of breeders on youtube behaving as though they have some kind of scientific basis for testing. However, temperament tests may be useful and I continue to keep track of them. As for now, the best source of information is probably the breeders who breed different “lines” and who have done so for many years. That is, if they are particularly interested in temperament.








Taming Baby Rats

People get rats from lots of different places and they aren’t always the tamest of rats. There is no point telling someone who has just picked up a couple of unhandled babies that they ought to have looked for a breeder who selects for calm temperament and handles their baby rats daily. First, they probably tried that but didn’t want to wait 4-6 months for baby rats from these (frankly rare) breeders who handle daily. Second, it’s too late!

However, the good news is that for most rats, taming is just a matter of time and patience. While it may not seem easy, it is definitely possible to bring a rat around from a skittish scared baby to a great pet. In fact, some of the nicest adult rats I’ve had started out as not very confident babies.

There are different ideas about taming rats. Whatever method you choose, I’d suggest that early on (immediately) stop chasing your rats around a cage. The more you chase, the more they’ll run and you are encouraging them into a habit of running away from you. Also, while you know you aren’t going to hurt them, you are associating your hand with fear and this actually works against you.

If you have fearful babies (or even older rats) you might start with a smaller cage than the big (I hope!) one to which they will eventually graduate. If your babies aren’t too skittish, you could try a Ruffy Savic or a Ferplast Mary , for example. But really, any relatively small cage that is advertised as suitable for two rats (but frankly, is not suitable for two adults, though great for taming babies). Don’t worry that you will never use this cage again after you’ve tamed your rats – you will! Such small cages are great as “hospital” cages for the sick or elderly or for taking a few rats away with you overnight or to a rat show. Yes, I said rat show. The NFRS has many shows throughout the year and you may like to go along and even enter your own rats – they are quite fun events!

One method for taming rats is to gradually and softly get your rats used to you. This is what I do. People have various names for this method, but the idea is that you help the rats to gradually think of you, your smell, you gaze and your hands as the precursors to Good Things To Come! Gradually get closer and closer to them, always stopping before they freak out. Eventually, they will no longer afraid of you being there. However, this  can take anything from 5 minutes to 5 days.

I’ve done this for hours every day with older rats who otherwise may have bitten me and it works very well. I’ve also done it with babies. I can attest that eventially your rats will come to trust you, but you do need to clock up the hours, allowing the rats to gradually build confidence. It takes time. It takes patience. It is by far the most humane way you can get your rats to like you and associate you with all that they love.

However, make sure you start off with serious motivators. While a terrified rat will not eat (usually) you may find that a greedy rat is willing to take a risk to get to something very yummy. It’s hard for a rat to totally ignore the offer of “junk food” by way of digestive biscuits or small bites of cake. Start with a fair chunk so that they can take it and run further into their cage and gradually build up to cake crumbs they have to lick from your palm. Smear your hands with treats like yoghurt or pudding for them to lick off, that sort of thing.

You can then graduate to putting the treats on  your arms, etc until the rat feels confident walking onto your body to retrieve them. After initial reluctance, rats almost invariably find the food irresistible and associate you with good things. It is very satisfying to watch the process unfold.  Over time you can hold the rat and allow it to hop back into its cage when it likes. Before you know it, your rat readily walks out of the cage onto you and forgets all about being scared. You won’t even need treats anymore as your rat’s natural curiosity means they come check you out whenever you give them the chance. However, at some point you may want to practice picking up your rat and putting it down over and over and over so that if you have to do there is no question of the rat running away.

The other popular method for taming rats is total immersion – sometimes known  as the confidence method. In this case, you take your rat out and handle it for twenty minutes at a time regardless of how it feels about the situation. This is a great method for babies who aren’t really all that scared in the first place. But it’s easy to overwhelm them so be careful. You have to always be thinking from the rat’s point of view. I know you love your rats — but do they love you? And is there anything in this immersion process that is the least bit fun for them? The answer should be yes.

If your rats are particularly nutty, even the size of a Savic Ruffy or Mary cage being used as a “training cage” is probably too big. They may still be running away from you.  If so, do your best to catch them and put them into an animal carrier for the duration of your taming sessions, which should take place a few times a day. Again, even if you are using the “immersion” process be as respectful as you can of the fear the animal is feeling. You need to be sure you aren’t making things worse.

Inside a carrier, there really isn’t a lot of room to run, so they are well and truly stuck. This has the advantage that you can pick up a rat without cornering it. On the other hand, you’ve kind of already cornered it so it may be scared to death. At least the act of running, itself, has been eliminated which may mean the stress is less for the poor rat. Hard to say. However, you may be cornering it so that all it feels it can do is bite you. The rat will soon learn that biting works really well to get rid of an unwanted hand — and now you are in worse trouble than when you started!

Most babies are not going to bite you during the “total immersion” method (though don’t bet on it). When using this method, take the carrier with the rats inside to a secure room and stick your hand into the carrier for 5-minute stretches until they settle down with the notion of a hand. Beware they may nibble your hand investigating whether it is food (let them).   Nibbles from babies are one thing. Fear bites from adults are quite another. I prefer the softly-softly method for adults when possible for this reason and am more likely to take a few chances with the babies. Having said that, you really don’t want to scare rats during their most sensitive periods (for example from age 6 weeks to about 12 weeks). Make sure the babies are more excited that afraid and that every session with you is as positive and rewarding as possible.

But back to babies. Now that you’ve put your hand in and out many times and the rats are tolerating it, you can do one of several things. You can take out a single rat and try to keep it in your hands, allowing it to run from one hand to the other for a period of time up to about 20 minutes. Or you can purposely move it from one hand to another, which will not be difficult. Once you see a little improvement (this can take up to twenty minutes) swap it for the other rat, and so on.

When picking up your rats, remember to scoop the rat from underneath, and never pick it up by the tail. I know you will hear of people who “tail” rats (pick them up by the base of the tail) but that is not a great way to make friends with a rat. In fact, you could be bitten.

The use of a cloth or light blanket or something the rat can hid under, or even better yet “bonding” pouch which you wear around your neck, can help your rat feel safe. Using a bonding pouch, you can put a couple of babies in at a time. However, if you are using your bare hands (apparently a faster method, though not if you are at risk of the rat jumping) only have a single rat out at a time.

Whichever process you choose, or whichever combination of processes you choose, always remember that the rat is doing his best. You can’t ask a rat to try harder when they are trying their hardest already. The poor rat doesn’t know you want to love him. He thinks you want to kill him. So be patient – most rats do come around!

For more information and an excellent step-by-step description of the “immersion method” have a look at’s page on the subject.